資料彙整   /   作家  /  Robert  Herrick  羅伯•海瑞克
Robert  Herrick
羅伯•海瑞克
圖片來源:http://www.poets.org/poets/poets.cfm?prmID=201
主要文類:Poem
資料提供者:Cecilia Liu/劉雪珍;Julia Hsieh/謝佩璇
關鍵字詞:English Literature I:the Seventeenth Century;English Literature and Culture From Medieval Period to the Eighteenth Century

羅伯.海瑞克

1591-1674

 

 早年生活

A.     家庭背景

B.     詩人的誕生

 成年時期

A.     成名

B. 出版詩集

 

 晚年

 
 早年生活
 

A.     家 庭背景

 

1591年8月 24日出生於倫敦的羅伯.海瑞克(Robert Herrick,後稱海瑞克),自小生活於富裕的家庭之中,父親尼可拉斯.海瑞克(Nicholas Herrick)於海瑞克出生翌年便墜樓身亡,母親茱 莉安.海瑞克(Julian Herrick)因無力獨力撫養七名子女,因而向親戚求助。由於父母親雙方的親戚皆為富有的商人、從事金的行業, 海瑞克及其兄弟姊妹均接受親友的教養,即便是工作的安排。

 

B.     詩 人的誕生

 

海瑞克的幼年教育環境成謎,直到1607年之後的教育背景有較詳細的記載。在大伯 威廉.海瑞克爵士(Sir William Herrick)的門下學習冶金術一段時間後,年僅十六歲的海瑞克漸漸發現自己雖然欽羨親戚、大伯富有、受尊崇的地位,他的興趣卻不在成為富商或是金。因此海 瑞克以二十二歲的年紀進入劍橋的聖約翰學院就讀,後又因節約起見,轉 往同在劍橋的三合一學院就讀,並於1617年得到學士學位, 1720年完成其碩士學位。海瑞克原本學習法律,後因受到其摯友約翰• 威奇(John Wickes)的影響,投身於神職工作。在劍橋的學習生涯之中,海瑞克與朋友們經常飲酒作樂,分享自己創作的詩篇。也因為其 作詩風格往往不同於他人,而引起注目。

 

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 成年時期
 

A.     成 名

 

1623年接受神職安排 後,海瑞克與威奇士便一同從事傳教的工作。因為在倫敦, 海瑞克的親友們經常齊聚一堂吃喝玩樂,海瑞克於其詩篇之中往往透露生活之中的樂趣,也因此他的詩篇呈現親和簡單清新的風格。這樣的詩文特色讓海瑞克的詩不 久便與得雷頓(Drayton)與強森(Ben Jonson)齊名。

 

 

B.     出 版詩集

 

觀察力敏銳的海瑞克在1629年被指 派岱文(Devonshire)服 務,一開始海瑞克無法適應儉樸的鄉村生活,但久而久之,受到鄉村自然美景及草野人民的感動,常將其觀察的人事景物,細膩的呈現於其詩篇之中。十年後,雖然 海瑞克一度曾因擅自離開工作崗位而未向教區主教稟報,以及私生女疑雲而接受調查,他還是出版了詩集The Severall Poems1647年,海瑞克因支持的查爾斯世上斷頭而被迫去職,回到倫敦。次年,他的《海絲佩拉蒂 》Hesperides出版,雖未造成轟動,但其作品清新儉樸的風格為日後二三十年間詩集精選的主要收錄作家之

 

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 晚年
  當查爾斯二返回英國 時,海瑞克重返其教區服務,但自此至1674年過世期間,海瑞克便沈隱, 並未寫作或出版任何詩集。
 
   
     

Robert Herrick

1591-1674

Provider: Julia Hsieh / 謝佩璇

 

 Early Life

A.     Family Background

B.     Education

 Later Life

A.     A Servant to His Highness

B.     Writing Performance

  Last Years

 
 Early Life
 

A.     Family Background

Born on August 24, 1591, Robert Herrick was the fourth son in the seven children of Nicholas Herrick and Julian Stone Herrick.  A year later Herrick's birth, Nicholas fell from a window of his house and died.  Though this accident was in a way suspected as a suicidal act, this goldsmith and banker left his widow and children pretty much legacy that had somehow promised the living quality of the Herrick family.  However, Widow Julian Herrick was not able to maintain the household and turned to her relatives and her dead husband's relatives for help.  The Herrick's wealthy relatives who were possibly prominent merchants, goldsmiths or of other professions did give a big hand in taking care of the children; they not merely educated them but found them jobs.

B.     Education

The schooling of Herrick before 1607 is a mystery.  What we know is that Herrick was an apprentice to Sir William Herrick, his uncle who was a wealthy and prosperous goldsmith.  Nonetheless, the 16-year-old lad soon found out his real interest, despite his admiration of the uncle's status and wealth.  Herrick entered St. John's at Cambridge first at the age of twenty-two; then transferred to Trinity Hall, also at Cambridge, to continue his study later.  The reason for his transferring may be to save the expenses.  Herrick received a B.A. degree in 1617, and his M. A. degree three years after that.  From his letters to his uncle, his revealed his active participation in school life, circle of friends and also a faithful student of Henry Peacham who wrote The Compleat Gentleman.  Herrick's much affected by his learning from his schoolmasters and friends among who Clipseby Crew and John Wickes remained his lifelong friends.

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 Later Life
 

A.     A Servant to His Highness

It was possibly Wickes' influence, in the spring of 1623, Herrick decided to answer Bishop Dove of Peterborough's appointment of a curate, and hence began his career of priest.  Before he joined the expedition led by Duke of Buckingham, Herrick enjoyed his life fully with his friends in London.  In many of Herrick's poetry, the merriment and pleasure of feasting, drinking, singing and sharing poetry that composed by Herrick himself and his clergymen friends were prominent features and main themes.  And before long, Herrick's name appeared parallel to other famous poets of his time, such as Ben Jonson, Drayton, and etc.  In 1629, Herrick received the job of being a vicar in the west of the country.  On his first long living abroad, Herrick firstly seemed to be unable to adjust into the rural village in Devonshire.  But soon he opened up to the beauty of the view of countryside and country life.  For ten years, Herrick stayed in Devonshire and made use of the inspiration out of the nature and small things in composing his poems.  It was ten years later that Herrick left for London for getting his poems published.  This incident eventually caught him in trouble for his leaving his parish without the permission of his bishop. 

B.     Writing Performance

Despite of an investigation of his departure without application and an illegitimate child by Tomasin, Herrick not only had his The Severall Poems published but was found not guilty.  When the war between King Charles and the Parliamentarians and Puritans broke out in 1642, Herrick was out of the center of the storm and continued to live his life and composing poems in the country.  Though later his loyalty to the king caused his lost of his position of a priest in 1647, Herrick returned to London and had his poems printed out, again, one year later.  In Hesperides, Herrick included 1400 poems.  This might be the last that the poet published and composed.

 

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 Last Years
  After Hesperides, there was hardly any evidence showing the poet involving in active poetry writing.  As to his job, Herrick had been restored to his old position at Dean Prior as a vicar when King Charles II returned to England.  From then to his death in 1674, Herrick was not known for any eminent poetry but some epitaph.  To his ripe age at eighty three, Herrick left the world his particular interesting writing technique of short, clear, observant and vivid poems.

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Reference

Rollin, Roger B.  Robert Herrick.  New York: Twayne Publishers, 1966.

MaxPatrick, F.  Ed.  The Complete Poetry of Robert Herrick.  New York: The Norton Library, 1968.

Ishii, Shonosuke.  The Poetry of Robert Herrick.  Tokyo: The Renaissance Institute, 1974.

     
     

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