資料彙整   /   作家  /  Anthony  Burgess  安東尼.伯吉斯
Anthony  Burgess
安東尼.伯吉斯
圖片來源:http://wiredforbooks.org/images/burgess.jpg
主要文類:Novel
資料提供者:蘇子惠
關鍵字詞:

Anthony Burgess
英國小說家、劇作家、評論家及作曲家
蘇子惠
 
 
 早年生活
 
  一九一七年二月二十五日,安東尼•伯吉斯出生於曼徹斯特一個羅馬天主教中產階級家庭,母親伊莉莎白•伯吉斯•威爾森(Elizabeth Burgess Wilson)及其姊 穆麗兒(Muriel) 隔年因流感相繼去世,早年喪母對伯吉斯往後的生涯和作品影響甚鉅。父親約瑟夫•威爾森(Joseph Wilson)再娶了一名酒吧女店主,伯吉斯痛批其父是「一名不稱職、經常不在家的酒鬼」,他的成長過程也活在繼母陰影底下,小說《恩德比先生的內心》(Inside Mr. Enderby,1963年)其中一名古怪的角色,便是用來暗諷他的繼母。另一個對他成長影響深遠的因子,是家庭和學校無處不在的羅馬天主教會,他的作品也經常出現此一主題。儘管他十六歲時宣布脫離天主教會,卻沒有帶來太多喜悅,以小說《蓄意的顫慄》(Tremor of Intent,1966年)開頭幾章為例,伯吉斯運用少年時期就讀 沙佛藍會中學(Xaverian College)的回憶,描述一群正值發育中的男學生如何以純真天性,對抗天主教條的冥頑僵化。

TOP

 
 求學階段
 
  伯吉斯自幼發願成為一名作曲家。他念完中學後,一九三六年就讀曼徹斯特大學,由於缺乏數理科學的背景知識,使他被排拒於音樂學院門外,只好改念英國文學,隨即深深著迷於文字與音樂相關的韻律。另一方面,伯吉斯致力於編纂大學刊物《巨蛇》(Serpent),也同樣一頭栽進戲劇世界中。他大學時期的老師奈特博士(Dr. L. C. Knights)著有《姜生時期戲劇與社會》(Drama and Society in the Age of Johnson, 1937)一書,也是新批評(New Criticism)理論主要學者,伯吉斯深受其方法論影響,認為小說批評必須倚賴精闢分析以及文本詮釋。

TOP

 
 從軍時期
 
  一九四○年,伯吉斯大學畢業後加入軍隊,先被指派到 英國皇家陸軍醫療部隊(Royal Army Medical Corps),後轉至小型歌舞團擔任鋼琴師兼作曲人。一九四三年,伯吉斯被調往西班牙直布羅陀(Gibraltar)的教育兵團(Army Education Corps)擔任講師,除了負責演說和戲劇課程之外,另教授德、俄、法及西班牙文,還協助向同袍宣揚「大英帝國殖民意志及策略」( "The British Way and Purpose")。他的第一部小說《城垛上的幻影》(A Vision of Battlements, 1949年完稿, 1965年採用筆名「約瑟夫•凱爾」出版)講述一名落魄失意的音樂家理查茲•恩尼斯(Richards Ennis)其人生平,也是作者形塑的反英雄第一人。 恩尼斯 經歷一連串殘酷的磨難,領悟到不只是音樂,他的人生也一敗塗地。 《城垛上的幻影》故事 背景設定在直布羅陀,主要描述戰後兵士無所事事,只能等待任務指派下來的尷尬處境。

TOP

 
 馬來亞和汶萊時期:早年教書生涯
 
  一九四六年,伯吉斯自軍中退伍後四處打工維生,他先在倫敦爵士樂團充當鋼琴手,後赴 牛津郡 (Oxfordshire)的班伯里(Banbury)一間文法學校擔任教師,課程涵蓋英國文學及其他科目。一九五四年,他接到來自馬來亞(Malaya,現為「馬來西亞」 Malaysia)的聘書,任命他為教師兼大英帝國殖民服務隊(British Colonial Service)教育長官,展開了「以寫作自娛」的文學生涯。他在這段期間著有《老虎降臨》(Time for a Tiger, 1956年) 、 《毯中敵人》 (The Enemy in the Blanket, 1958年) 以及 《東方床笫》 (Beds in the East, 1959年),後來集結成《馬來亞三部曲》(A Malayan Trilogy)系列小說,一方面描述年輕的英籍教師 維克多•克拉卜(Victor Crabbe)在 馬來亞獨特迷人的冒險旅程,點明大英帝國統治的殞落,也詳述英國殖民者與當地各族群(坦米爾人、錫克教徒、馬來人以及中國人)的衝突事件。

一九五四年至一九五九年間,伯吉斯被派駐馬來亞和汶萊(Brunei)負責教育工作,創作力驚人的他,期間又陸續完成小說《邪惡者的王國》(Devil of a State, 1961年出版)以及二本回憶錄《小威爾森和大造物主》(Little Wilson and Big God, 1987年)、《長路已盡》(You've Had Your Time, 1990年)。 一九六二年十二月十四日,伯吉斯在英國國家廣播電台(BBC radio)作了一場〈汶萊的叛變〉("Rebellion in Brunei")演講,提及多年的教學經驗告訴他,「文化匯聚」(confluence of cultures)在種族衝突中,特別是在英國殖民者與傾向獨立的馬來人兩造的對立關係中扮演要角,此一主題在伯吉斯其他作品也屢見不鮮。

TOP

 
 「腦瘤」事件
 
  一九五九年,伯吉斯被診斷出罹患腦瘤,僅剩一年可活。他為了確保妻子在他身後收入無虞,返國專事寫作,陸續有五部作品問世。他偕妻子在 薩西克斯郡(Sussex)租下一整層公寓,便於 寫作游刃有餘。據說二十年後, 伯吉斯 第二十八部小說《邪惡者的王國》也僅花費了一星期每天八小時寫就。 伯吉斯的「臨終小說」("terminal novels") 包括融入自身悲劇經驗的《病醫師》(The Doctor Is Sick, 1960年)、 《恩德比先生的內心》、《蟲子與戒指》(The Worm and the Ring, 1961年)、《缺席的種子》(The Wanting Seed, 1962年)以及《孤掌難鳴》(One Hand Clapping, 1961年)等,其中二部以筆名「約瑟夫•凱爾」出版。伯吉斯無心插柳成為專職作家, 「臨終小說」 產量堪稱驚人, 也使得出版商和文評家 歎為觀止 。

TOP

 
 婚姻生活
 
  一九四二年,伯吉斯與莉葳拉•伊塞伍德•瓊斯 (Llewela Isherwood Jones, 1920 ∼ 1968年)結褵。高中校長之女 莉葳拉(以下簡稱「琳恩」) 是威爾斯人,婚後不僅酗酒、個性偏執且喜好出言不遜,帶給另一半「無比的狂喜與巨大的痛苦」,琳恩因多年病魔纏身,一九六八年不幸過世,伯吉斯第一段婚姻終告結束,幾個月後,他再娶了義大 利伯爵 夫人莉莉安 娜•馬沙拿利 (Liliana Macellari),再婚事件引起軒然大波,伯吉斯不得不帶著兒子安德利亞(Andrea)舉家遷往摩納哥(Monaco)定居,偶而赴美作巡迴演講。

TOP

 
 史丹利•庫柏力克的電影《發條橘子》與第二十一章出版爭議
 
  伯吉斯的中篇小說《發條橘子》一九六二年出版,一般咸認它是通俗科幻小說,唯獨作者力排眾議,堅稱這部小說強調自由意志(free will)和 行為主義心理學 (psychological behaviorism) 。《發條橘子》也不負 伯吉斯所 望,其文學地位與 喬治.歐威爾(George Orwell)的《1984》(Nineteen Eighty-Four)、阿道斯•赫胥黎(Aldous Huxley)的《美麗新世界》(Brave New World)、尤金•扎米亞金(Yevgeny Zamyatin)的《我們》(We)以及安•蘭德(Ayn Rand)的《一個人的頌歌》(Anthem)等作品不分軒輊。伯吉斯擷取英文、 美式俚語、俄文、吉普賽行話以及 詹姆斯一世時期散文作 為素材,在小說中發展出一套獨特的納查奇語(nadsat),不僅《發條橘子》主角亞歷克斯(Alex)敘事時經常可見, 伯吉斯也 在引言〈再 吮發條橘子〉("A Clockwork Orange Resucked ")中指出,《發條橘子》書名的意義來自倫敦東區土話:「像發條橘子一樣怪(" as queer as a clockwork orange")。」意指一個人的「外表是有機物,具有可愛的色彩和汁液,實際上僅僅是發條玩具,由著上帝或魔鬼所操縱("has the appearnce of an organism lovely with colour and juice but is in fact only a clockwork toy to be wound up by God or the Devil")。」

《發條橘子》分成三部,各有七章,第二十一章是人類成熟的標記,因為人到了二十一歲便擁有選舉權。一九七一年,名導演 史丹利•庫柏力克(Stanley Kubrick) 採用紐約出版商的版本,自行刪除第二十一章故事情節,拍成同名電影《發條橘子》。《發條橘子》原著部分靈感源自一樁暴力事件:伯吉斯第一任妻子琳恩在倫敦街頭,無故遭四名美國大兵毆打,除了不幸流產之外,終生還為 經期紊亂所苦。伯吉斯寄望小說能夠帶頭起「淨化」(catharsis)作用,當作一種「救贖行為」("act of charity"),幫助那些遭受無知男性施暴的弱小婦女(例如十五歲的惡棍主角亞歷克斯殘忍地攻擊作家夫婦)脫困。不過在 庫柏力克的電影中,「頌揚暴力」(a celebration of violence)取代了主角亞歷克斯在原著尾聲經歷的道德心理成長,有批評家認為主角最後的施暴可以削弱國家的極端鐵腕政策,進一步取得一種怪異的平衡,也有批評家主張第二十一章必須存在,如此一來《發條橘子》作為「成長小說」(bildungsroman)的架構才得以完備。

TOP

 
 《塵世權力》和 其他作品
 
  一九六二年至一九八○年間,伯吉斯總共創作了十五部小說,包括《聖維納斯之夜》(The Eve of St. Venus, 1964年)、《發條遺囑》(The Clockwork Testament,1974年)、《大鬍子的羅馬女人》(Beard's Roman Women, 1976年)、《天父啊天父》(ABBA ABBA,1977年)等,其中不乏幽默小品,至於其他嚴肅作品如《太陽萬能》(Nothing Like the Sun,1964年)、 《蓄意的顫慄》、《恩德比的外貌》(Enderby Outside, 1968年)、《M/F》(1971年)、《拿破崙交響曲》(Napoleon Symphony, 1974年)以及《塵世權力》(Earthly Powers, 1980年)等,文學價值則相對較高。《塵世權力》更被許多批評家公認為伯吉斯最好的一部小說,也最富爭議性,小說敘述者肯尼士•馬夏爾•圖米 (Kenneth Marchal Toomey)本身即是一名爭議性頗高的知名小說家,也是冷漠無情的同性戀者,據說他是以英國小說家毛姆(W. Somerset Maugham)作為角色雛型。這部小說另一名主角是義大利神父卡羅•康潘納堤 (Carlo Campanati),與小說家圖米有親戚關係,其形象是仿照已故教宗若望二十三世(Pope John XXIII),伯吉斯既不尊敬也不欣賞教宗其人,神父卡羅在他筆下是一名浮士德式(Faustian)的悲劇人物,自願與魔鬼做交易,以求換取教皇在人世間的一切權力。

TOP

 
 晚年生活
 
  伯吉斯晚年與第二任妻子定居摩納哥首都蒙地卡羅(Monte Carlo)和瑞士盧加諾市(Lugano), 伯吉斯 熱愛賭博,幾乎夜夜造訪賭場。他與摩納哥王室交好,也經常與已故的葛麗絲王妃(Princess Grace)一同散步。 伯吉斯 無論落腳何處,生活習慣均規律有度,從早上十點持續工作到下午五點、喝濃茶、抽小雪茄菸,每天平均寫出一千字,慣用文書處理機寫新聞稿,而用打字機寫作。即使他的健康每下愈況,不得不返回英國,仍寫作不輟,一九九三年他出版小說《戴卜特佛的死者》(A Dead Man in Deptford),同年因癌症病逝倫敦。

TOP

 

 
References
 
 

"Anthony Burgess," in Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography, Volume 8: Contemporary Writers, 1960 to the Present. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Gale Research, 1992, pp. 3-35.

"Anthony Burgess," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 14: British Novelists Since 1960. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Jay L. Halio, University of Delaware. The Gale Group, 1982, pp. 159-187.

"Anthony Burgess," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 194: British Novelists Since 1960, Second Series. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Merritt Moseley, University of North Carolina at Asheville. The Gale Group, 1998, pp. 49-72.

"Anthony Burgess," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 261: British Fantasy and Science-Fiction Writers Since 1960. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Darren Harris-Fain, Shawnee State University. The Gale Group, 2002, pp. 115-129.

"John (Anthony) Burgess Wilson," in Contemporary Authors. (A profile of the author's life and works)

"John (Anthony) Burgess Wilson," in Contemporary Literary Criticism-Select. (A brief review of the author's life, works, and critical reception)

TOP

 
 
 

Anthony Burgess
John Anthony Burgess Wilson, 1917-1993
British novelist, playwright, essayist and composer
蘇子惠
 
 
 Early Life
 
Anthony Burgess (John Anthony Burgess Wilson) was born to a Roman Catholic family in Manchester, England on February 25, 1917. His mother, Elizabeth Burgess Wilson, and his sister, Muriel died of influenza in the following year, and the loss of motherhood was deeply reflected in his life and works. Burgess described his father, Joseph Wilson, who remarried to a pub landlady, as "a mostly absent drunk who called himself a father . " He was brought up under the influence of a stepmother who reappeared as a grotesque figure in Inside Mr. Enderby (1963) . The other dominant influence in his life both at home and at school was the Roman Catholic Church, which was described in many of his novels. Burgess renounced Catholicism at about age sixteen, but the renunciation gave him little joy. In the early chapters of Tremor of Intent (1966), for example, he used his childhood memories of the Xaverian College, Manchester, to paint a delightful portrait of growing schoolboys' minds as they face the deadening impenetrability of Catholic doctrines.

TOP

 
 School Years
 
  Burgess's most persistent youthful ambition was to become a composer. After a secondary education at Xaverian College in his home city, Burgess enrolled at the University of Manchester in 1936. A failed science background kept him out of the music department at Manchester University, so he studied English language and literature instead and had been fascinated by the close relation of words and music. Burgess also poured his energy into editing the university magazine, the Serpent, and into the dramatic society. Burgess's personal tutor Dr. L. C. Knights, author of Drama and Society in the Age of Johnson (1937), was one of the leading exponents of New Criticism. Through Knights, Burgess was influenced by his method, which enables one to criticize a novel by close analysis and explication of the text.

TOP

 
 War Service
 
  After graduating in 1940, Burgess joined the British Army and was assigned to the Royal Army Medical Corps. He was then sent to join a small entertainment group as a pianist and arranger. Then in 1943, Burgess was transferred to the Army Education Corps in Gibraltar, Spain . Here he was a training college lecturer in speech and drama, teaching German, Russian, French and Spanish, and he helped instruct the troops in "The British Way and Purpose." His first novel A Vision of Battlements (written in 1949 and published in 1965 under the pseudonym Joseph Kell) concerns the life of a failed musician. Richards Ennis is the first of Burgess' antiheroes who is in the cruel process of learning about his failures, and not only in music either. The novel is significantly set in Gibraltar, in the postwar period when the soldiers are waiting around to be given something to do.

TOP

 
 Malaya and Brunei Years: Early Teaching Career
 
  After discharging from the army in 1946, Burgess worked at a variety of jobs, serving as a piano player in a jazz band in London and as a grammar school instructor teaching various subjects including English literature in Banbury, Oxfordshire. In 1954, Burgess accepted a position in Malaya (now Malaysia ) as a teacher and education officer for the British Colonial Service and began his literary career "as a kind of hobby." Time for a Tiger (1956), The Enemy in the Blanket (1958) and Beds in the East (1959) are known as A Malayan Trilogy which base upon his fascinating experiences in Malaya . Following the adventures of Victor Crabbe, a young British schoolmaster living in Malaya, the books examine the demise of British rule and present a detailed portrait of the conflicts between the British colonials and the diverse indigenous populations (Tamils, Sikhs, Malays and Chinese).

As an education officer in Malaya and Brunei between 1954 and 1959, Burgess's prodigious writings include Devil of a State (a novel about Brunei published in 1961) and two memoirs Little Wilson and Big God (1987) and You've Had Your Time (1990). He also gave a talk on the "Rebellion in Brunei," broadcasted by BBC radio on December 14, 1962. Inspired by teaching experiences in Malaya and Brunei, Burgess found the conflict of races and tensions between the colonizing British and the independent-minded Malays, a "confluence of cultures," the subject matter of many of his novels.

TOP

 
 "Brain Tumor" Incident
 
  In 1959, Burgess was diagnosed with a fatal brain tumor and given less than a year to live. Insuring his wife's posthumous income after his death, Burgess returned to England and produced five novels during that period. He and his wife rented a flat in Sussex and he was able to complete five novels without great difficulty. Some twenty years later he had published his twenty-eighth novel, The Kingdom of the Wicked (1985), reportedly writing seven days a week for a good eight hours a day. Those "terminal novels" include The Doctor Is Sick (1960), drawing on his own near-tragic situation and also Inside Mr. Enderby (1963), The Worm and the Ring (1961), The Wanting Seed (1962), and One Hand Clapping (1961). For two of these novels he used the pseudonym Joseph Kell. Burgess launched himself as a professional novelist by accident, and his productivity of "terminal novels" during his "terminal year" astonished publishers and critics.

TOP

 
 Marriage Life
 
  In 1942, Burgess married a Welsh girl, Llewela Isherwood Jones (1920-1968), the eldest daughter of a high school principal. His first wife Lynne, an abusive and paranoid alcoholic, was depicted as the source of Burgess's "great joy and unimaginable pain." Their marriage lasted until her death in 1968 after many years of severe illness. Within a few months of his first wife's death, Burgess remarried Italian contessa Liliana Macellari and caused quite a scandal. With their son, Andrea, the Burgesses later settled in Monaco, taking occasional trips to America on the lecture circuit.

TOP

 
 Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange and the Omitted Twenty-First Chapter
 
  When A Clockwork Orange was published in 1962, it was considered sheer science fiction. But Burgess intended this novella to be a study on free will and psychological behaviorism. A Clockwork Orange was later regarded as a successor to earlier great novels such as Nineteen Eighty-Four, Brave New World, We, and Anthem . Burgess invented a dialect out of English and American slang, Russian, gypsy argot, and Jacobean prose in A Clockwork Orange . The book, narrated by Alex, contains many words in a slang dialect called nadsat . In Burgess's later introduction "A Clockwork Orange Resucked," he wrote that the title of the novel came from an old Cockney expression from East London, "as queer as a clockwork orange"—indicating that one "has the appearnce of an organism lovely with colour and juice but is in fact only a clockwork toy to be wound up by God or the Devil."

A Clockwork Orange is divided into three parts that each containing seven chapters. Twenty-one is a symbolic number as it is the age that which a child earns his rights at the time. Stanley Kubrick 's 1971 film adaptation A Clockwork Orange used an American version of the script, which left out the twenty-first chapter. The book was partly inspired by a violent event that Burgess's first wife Lynn was assaulted by four U.S. GI deserters on the street in London, suffering a miscarriage and lifelong dysmenorrhea. According to Burgess, writing the novel was both a catharsis and an "act of charity" toward senseless male violence against defenseless women. The narrator Alex, a fifteen-year-old attacker, assaults brutally on the writer and his wife. In Kubrick 's screenplay, the protagonist Alex's ultimate moral and psychological growth is replaced by a celebration of violence. While some critics argue that Alex's violence lessens or counterbalances the extreme actions of the State, others consider the final chapter completes the "bildungsroman" framework for a novel.

TOP

 
 Earthly Powers and Other Works
 
  Between 1962 and the end of 1980, Burgess produced fifteen novels. Some of these, such as The Eve of St. Venus (1964), The Clockwork Testament (1974), Beard's Roman Women (1976), and ABBA ABBA (1977), are rather slight books. The most significant are Nothing Like the Sun (1964), Tremor of Intent (1966), Enderby Outside ( 1968 ), M/F (1971), Napoleon Symphony (1974), and Earthly Powers (1980). The Earthly Powers is considered by many critics Burgess's finest novel, but in some ways it is also his most controversial. In this novel, Burgess took the controversial narrator Kenneth Marchal Toomey as an eminent novelist, an unsympathetic homosexual and a character reportedly modeled on W. Somerset Maugham. This is also the story of Carlo Campanati, an Italian priest linked with Toomey through family ties. Carlo Campanati, is modeled on the late Pope John XXIII, whom Burgess neither revered nor admired. He is a Faustian figure who made a bargain with the devil in return for the earthly powers of the papacy.

TOP

 
 Last Years
 
  During his last years, Burgess and his wife settled in Monte Carlo and in Lugano, Switzerland . He loved to gamble and visited the casinos nightly. He knew the royal family well and frequently strolled with Princess Grace. Wherever he was living, Burgess continued to work systematically from 10 a .m. to 5 p.m., drinking strong tea, smoking small cigars, and producing a thousand words a day, using a word processor for his journalism and a typewriter for fiction. Even when his health began to fail and he had to return to England, he continued writing. Another novel, A Dead Man in Deptford, was completed and published in 1993, the year he died of cancer in London .

TOP

 

 
References
 
 

"Anthony Burgess," in Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography, Volume 8: Contemporary Writers, 1960 to the Present. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Gale Research, 1992, pp. 3-35.

"Anthony Burgess," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 14: British Novelists Since 1960. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Jay L. Halio, University of Delaware . The Gale Group, 1982, pp. 159-187.

"Anthony Burgess," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 194: British Novelists Since 1960, Second Series. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Merritt Moseley, University of North Carolina at Asheville . The Gale Group, 1998, pp. 49-72.

"Anthony Burgess," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 261: British Fantasy and Science-Fiction Writers Since 1960. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Darren Harris-Fain, Shawnee State University . The Gale Group, 2002, pp. 115-129.

"John (Anthony) Burgess Wilson," in Contemporary Authors. (A profile of the author's life and works)

"John (Anthony) Burgess Wilson," in Contemporary Literary Criticism-Select. (A brief review of the author's life, works, and critical reception)

TOP

 
 
 

Copyright ©2009 國科會人文學中心 All Rights Reserved.