資料彙整   /   作家  /  Adrienne  Rich  雅德里安.瑞奇
Adrienne  Rich
雅德里安.瑞奇
圖片來源:http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/m_r/rich/rich.htm
主要文類:Poem
資料提供者:Julia Hsieh/謝佩璇
關鍵字詞:Ekphrasis; Essay

Adrienne Rich 雅德理安.瑞奇

一九二九∼

Julia Hsieh/謝佩璇
 
 生平簡介
 她的著名代表作品
 

生 平簡介

這個瑪格莉特.艾特伍德所眼中知名的女性主義詩人,往往被視為全美深具影響力的傳奇人物,雅德理安.瑞奇的詩文廣泛的討論女性主義、女同志主義以及其他影 響深遠的社會議題。因為她鞭辟入裡的評論和見解,瑞奇成為全美社會運動的主要影響、指標性人物之一。

一、教育及成長背景

一九二九年五月十六日,雅德里安.瑞奇出生於馬里蘭州的巴爾的摩,阿諾. 瑞奇醫師與鋼琴演奏家海倫.依麗莎白.瓊斯的家中。瓊斯太太在婚後便辭去工作,專心照顧兩名年幼的女兒並料理家務以協助教學及醫學事業順利的瑞奇醫師專心 工作。瑞奇與妹妹辛希亞在家接受教育,直到十歲才入學繼續受教。在經濟蕭條的年代裡,瑞奇因著富裕的家庭環境而免於受苦,在重視教育的父母親指導之下飽讀 詩書、經典文學,並因為父親嚴厲的教育以及超高標準的要求之下,瑞奇在年幼時期便開始描摹名家詩作,進而發展自己的文采。 瑞奇夫婦致力孩子的教育,鼓勵瑞奇大量閱讀寫作,她完成基本學業之後進入瑞德里夫學院繼續學業,在一九五一年得到學士學位並出版第一本詩集《改變中的世 界》。這位當代著名詩人奧頓公開介紹並舉薦獲頒耶魯詩壇新人獎的年輕女詩人,在隔年獲得古根漢獎學金前往歐洲遊歷寫作。身為年輕而叛逆、急於掙脫整控自己 生活思想多年的父母親的文藝女青年,瑞奇在回國之後,不故父母親的反對,很快與哈佛大學經濟學者奧佛瑞.康瑞德結婚,並接連在此後六年之間生下三個孩子。 而這六年期間,瑞奇彷彿自文壇消失一般,忙碌於家務、照顧幼子,成為時人眼中專職的母親與妻子。蟄伏六年之後,一九六三年,瑞奇將這六年期間居住在麻瑟諸 賽州的劍橋所寫的詩作出版,名為《速寫媳婦》。


二、 行動派詩人


除了她著名的詩作之外,瑞奇也因她熱衷於社會、政治活動而出名。第二本出版的詩集不僅代表她的轉變,並且進而為五○及六○年代的女權運動和婦女解放運動發 聲。在七○年代,她投身於反戰運動,並持續捍衛推動性別平等等社會運動,為恐懼外國人而產生的排外而歧視外國人事件、女權以及其他社會福利相關活動奔走效 力。也因此,在家居生活多年之後,瑞奇得以一抒受到生活社會壓力侷限而困頓的婦女生活,向社會、世界發出對尊重女性、重視女權的呼籲。極具戲劇化的是,一 九七○年瑞奇的丈夫康瑞德自殺,留下瑞奇與遺孤,五年之後瑞奇公開出櫃承認自己女同志的性向並與蜜雪兒.克里夫成為終生夥伴。除了繼續創作並出現在各文學 獎項之列,瑞奇也在各大學院校擔任教職,並成為美國女權運動指標性人物。

 

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作品簡介

大衛聖約翰評論瑞奇的作品,認為她將持續影響美國及世界的女性主義運動。而大多數的詩評看瑞奇的詩作,總驚異其充滿藝術 性、想像力與以創新的意念呈現女性,並譴責性別歧視、種族歧視和對少數族裔及同志的剝削。

瑞奇的作品以不同的方式、觀點審視,舉例而言,里茲.約克認為她早期的作品之中流露典雅、積極卻又保守和裝飾性的文字,雪 梨.科爾比。藍戴爾則發現她文本中女性緘默與男性掌控權力的二元對立 。 她認為《改變中的世界》敘事語氣疏離而精粹,而形式卻顯得強烈、非人化的制式語態。瑞奇的詩集《鑽石切割者與其他詩選》與第一本詩集有類似的風格,充分以 精練的文字呈現她國外旅行所見所聞,以及家居生活的描繪。隨後在她獲獎詩選《速寫媳婦》中,瑞奇傳達出深居簡出的主婦生活多年,她所感受到的疏離孤寂感, 無奈面對時代背景加諸婦女的社會期望、生活壓力。約克便認為「速寫」一詩為女性發聲,她也相信瑞奇當時所採取的態度實在是保守的自由女性主義姿態。

許多詩評發現瑞奇在《速寫媳婦》一書中,風格已轉化為覺醒的女性主義意識。之後的詩選《生活的必要條件》中所展現的顯著的 轉變也進一步引起詩評與讀者的注意。這樣的風格轉變和議題同時引起正反面評論。 克來格.華納批評,在一九六○年,瑞奇主要的女性主義關懷議題為父權社會似是而非的矛盾情節,並且在詩作中呈現「憎惡男人」的語氣,這樣的改變過於極端。 在《改變的意志》之中,瑞奇對父權控制與當代社會對兩性不平等感到憂心與不滿。瑞奇處理的議題逐漸地超越男性女性不平等與個人議題,並透露她對政治信仰的 關切。

瑞奇的新常識改變令讀者驚奇,而評論也對她已不同方式實驗表達意見感到訝異,她的詩作中的嘗試包含有電影拍攝技巧如剪輯合 影、凍結畫面和跳脫鏡頭等手法。《尋找殘骸》和《堅強耐力助我行遠》被認定是瑞奇轉變成為激進女性主義者的代表作品;在書中,作者鼓勵當代女性對真相抱持 敏銳度和覺察,看清她們被男人視為寄生蟲般的生物,而男人多將女人視為性玩物。她的作品如《平凡言論的夢》和《一個門框的事實》舉證史實和女性文人代表, 如:愛蜜莉.狄更斯和瑪莉.居禮,試圖引起證明女性所經歷的困難和所達到的成就。在《二十一首情詩》之中,她更接續帶出女同志性向的看法。

瑞奇的詩被視為現代詩派、女性主義作品,並充滿對於社會少數族群所受的不公義而產生的同情心和關懷。之後她繼續於數本詩集中繼續討論種族、性別不平等等人 權相關議題。儘管詩評曾經抱怨並暗示瑞奇激進的批評父權和當代性別奇異的社會,藉由她的詩與詞,讓世人了解各樣社會問題,並學習尊重並接受尋找問題的意識 覺醒進而面對問題,解決問題。

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Adrienne Rich
1929-
Julia Hsieh/謝佩璇
 

 Biographic Sketch

 Her Works

 

 

Biographic Sketch 

Not simply as a renowned feminist poet, Adrienne Rich is the one of America 's best poets, according to Margaret Atwood that speaks for many others. Her poems and writings touch on the topics on feminism, lesbianism and other social issues; in view of her critical view toward societal observation, Rich is considered one of the major and leading role in social activity.
 
A. Family Background and Education
   

On May 16 th, 1929, Adrienne Rich was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to physician Arnold Rich and musician Helen Elizabeth Jones. Mrs. Rich quit her professional musician position and devoted her life to her daughters and domestic affairs after Mr. Rich's professions as a physician and later an esteemed professor had taken off. Though home-schooled until she was nine years old, Rich was well protected from Depression and fully educated with the access to her father's library of the poems, classics and Victorian literature, under the strict disciplines and high standards of Arnold Rich. She was indulged by the vast readings and encouraged to create her own works. It was her phenomenal childhood in this literary-cultivated family that later sent Rich away to Radeliffe College, where she received a Bachelor degree in 1951, had her first poetry collection, A Change of World, published and had her name introduced to the poetry society by W. H. Auden, who chose her to be the recipient of Yale Younger Poets Award. The following year, the Guggenheim Fellowship granted her enough funds to travel throughout Europe. She returned home to States and married Alfred G. Conrad, a Harvard economist/scholar. Rich has three sons with Conrad, David, Paul and Jacob, and the next six years, she was engaged with her domestic life, and according to Amy Siekels, she almost disappeared from the literary world for eight years, due to family obligation and the role of a devoted mother and wife. Despite all, those years residing in Cambridge, Massachusetts, were topped by her national distinction later because of the publication of Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law in 1963.

 
B. An acknowledged poet in action
   


Aside from her prominence in poetry, Rich is well known for her active participation in social and political events. The collection of her poetry has not merely signified her transformation, but pushed her forward to speak out and fight for Civil Rights and Women's Liberation Movement in 1950s and 1960s. In the ‘70s, she plunged into anti-war activities, and continued to crusades for the injustice of sexism, homophobia, women's rights and other social-related issues. After long-time feeling restrained and frustrated in domestic-circle-ridden life, through active participation in social events, Rich reached out to the world with her concerns to her society, the neglected people and with her talents to show the world her concerns. What's more dramatic, five years after Alfred Conrad committed suicide in 1970, Rich came out of the closet to claim her sexuality as a lesbian and developed a life-long relationship with Michelle Cliff. Moreover, besides winning more awards and fellowships for her works, Rich has taken academic positions in prestigious colleges and universities in view of her efforts and achievement.

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Her Works
 

As David St. John has remarked that Rich's works, essays and poetry will continue to influence feminism throughout States and the whole world, most critics deem Rich's poems overwhelmingly artistic, imaginative and innovative in terms of portraying women and indicating or criticizing the injustice of racial discrimination, exploitation of the minority and homosexuality.

Rich's works are usually analyzed and studied in discrete aspects. For instance, Liz Yorke finds that "[e]legance, evasion, reserve and decorum mark Rich'es poised and dignified early poems" (23), while Cheri Colby Langdell indicates the binary opposition of voices of the dominant story and the muted one, which represent male dominance and female silence or acquiesce respectively. Langdell also comments on common features in many poems in A Change of World: "The tone is detached and refined; the style is the terse, dry, impersonal style characteristic of formalist poetry" (15). Rich's second book of poems, The Diamond Cutters and Other Poems (1955), is similar to her first book, with stylish exquisite depiction of her travels and expeditions overseas and some domestic issues. Later on, in her prize-winning poetry collection Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law: Poems 1954-1962, she revealed senses of isolation and loneliness she had felt during the confinement of motherhood and womanhood by social expectation. Yorke regards the poem "Snapshots" that takes the position of the female that "breaks out of the oppressive expectations – of the male-dominated publishing houses, literary critics, academic establishments and the rest" (31); she is convinced that Rich starts to take up "a liberal feminist stance" (33) and yet, a reserved one.

As many critics have criticized and realized, Rich's Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law has transformed her style and trajectory due to the awakening feminist consciousness. The following poetry collection – Necessities of Life: Poems 1962-1965 – further arouses critics' and readers' attention by its prominent transformation. This transformation of styles and issues has raised criticism as well as applauds. Craig Werner has pointed out that by 1960s, Rich's concern on feminist issues and themes on patriarchy paradox which have been disclosed and reoccurring in her poems have somehow presented her "almost simultaneously with the emergence of the critical image […] as an obsessive man-hater" (37). The Will to Change, likewise, includes Rich's worries and dissatisfaction toward patriarchal control, manipulation and contemporary social complex toward both genders. Gradually, Rich deals with more than the inequality of men and women and personal issues, but unveils her preoccupation of political beliefs.

Rich's innovation astounds the readers and critics by her experiment with different ways of expression in her creation, including her imitation of film-making techniques which she adapts and procreates the approaches of jump cuts, collage or freeze frames into her poems. Diving into the Wreck: Poems, 1971-1972 and A wild Ptience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems, 1978-1981 are considered to be Rich's representation with the stance of a radical feminist; the poet encourages her contemporary women to be more conscious and determined to see the blunt truth that women have been brutally treated as parasitic creatures which men tend to abuse as the sadistic object. Her works, like The Dream of a Common Language and The Fact of a Doorframe, attempt to awake attention through historical facts and female figures such as Emily Dickinson and Marie Curie thtat exemplify the hardship and accomplishment women have been through. In Twenty-one Love Poems, she pushes further to bring out her perspectives on lesbian sexuality.

Rich's poems are reckoned to be modern, feminist and flooded with social concerns and compassion for the unjustified minority. Continuing her explorations on new issues as well as the old ones like racial and gender inequity, Your Native land, Your Life, Time's Power, An Atlas of the Difficult World and Dark Fields of the Republic can serve as examples that she expresses her reflection on her own Jewish heritage, on wars, the impacts of wars, on aging, on societal exploitation of the minority, on identity, on the rising social problem of the gap between the rich and the poor, and so on.

Although critics often complain and insinuate opposition to Rich's drastic condemn on patriarchy and the gender-biased contemporary society, through her poetry and prose, she indeed makes not merely the Americans, but the whole world of her readers, to comprehend the complexity of various social problems and to appreciate and celebrate their consciousness of finding the problem, facing it and endeavoring to fix it.

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Reference

"Adrienne (Cecile) Rich." Contemporary Author Onlines. Contemporary Authors Online, Thomson Gale, 2005.

"Adrienne Rich." Contemporary Literary Criticism. Gale.

Langdell, Cheri Colby. Adrienne Rich: The Moment of Change. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2004.

Sickels, Amy. Adrienne Rich. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2005.

Werner, Craig. Adrienne Rich: The Poet and Her Critics. Chicago: American Library Association, 1988.

Yorke, Liz. Adrienne Rich: Passion, Politics and the Body. London: Sage, 1997. 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 

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