Canto LIII

原文與注釋(Text and Annotation)

Summary 1-15
Yeou taught men to break branches
Seu Gin set up the stage and taught barter,
  taught the knotting of cords
Fou Hi taught men to grow barley
  2837 ante Christum 5
and they know still where his tomb is
by the high cypress between the strong walls.
the FIVE grains, said chin Nong that are
      wheat, rice, millet, gros ble and chic peas
and made a plough that is used five thousand years 10
Moved his court then to Kio-feou-hien
held market at mid-day
"bring what we have not here', wrote an herbal
Souan Yen bagged fifteen tigers
      made signs out of bird tracks 15
Summary 16-23
Hoang Ti contrived the making of bricks
and his wife started working the silk worms,
      money was in days of Hoang Ti.
He measured the length of Syrinx
        of the tubes to make tune for song 20 (19-20)
Twenty-six (that was) eleven ante Christum
      had four wives and 25 males of his making
His tomb is today in Kiao-Chan
Summary 24-43
Ti Ko set his scholars to fitting words to their music
      is buried in Tung Kieou 25
This was in the twenty-fifth century a.c.
      YAO like the sun and rain,
saw what star is at solstice
saw what star marks mid summer
YU, leader of waters, 30
      black earth is fertile; wild silk still is from Shantung
Ammassi, to the provinces,
      let his men pay tithes in kind.
'Siu-tcheou province to pay in earth of five colours
Pheasant plumes from the Yu-chan of mountains 35
Yu-chan to pay sycamores
      of this wood are lutes made (36-37)
Ringing stones from Se-choui River
And grass that is called Tsing-mo' or μωλυ,
Chun to the spirit Chang Ti, of heaven 40
moving the sun and stars
      que vos vers expriment vos intentions,
      et que la musique conforme
      CHUN KAO-YAO 皋陶
Summary 44-53
Summary 54-64
For years no waters came, no rain fell
      for the Emperor Tching Tang 55 (54-55)
grain scarce, prices rising
so that in 1766Tching Tang opened the copper mine (ante Christum)
made discs with square holes in their middles
      and gave these to the people
wherewith they might buy grain 60 (58-60)
The silos were emptied
7 years of sterility
der im baluba das Gewitter gemacht hat
Tching prayed on the mountain and 65
      wrote MAKE IT NEW
on his bath tub
      Day by day make it new (65-68)
cut underbrush,
pile the logs 70
keep it growing (69-71)
Died Tching aged years an hundred,
in the 13 of his reign.
        "We are up, Hia is down."
Summary 75-81
Immoderate love of women 75
Immoderate love of riches,
Cared for parades and huntin'.
       Chang Ti above alone rules.
Tang not stinting of praise:
       Consider their sweats, the people's 80
If you wd/sit calm on throne.
Summary 82-167
Summary 168-187
Thus come Kang to be Emperor/.
White horses with sorrel manes in the courtyard.
      "I am pro-T cheou"said Confucius 170
      "I am"said Confutzius"pro-T cheou in politics"
Wen-wang and Wu-wang had sage men, strong as bears
      Said young Kang-wang:
Help me to keep the peace!
Your ancestors have come one by one under our rule 175
for our rule.
Honout to Chao-Kong the surveyor.
    Let his mane last 3000 years
Gave each man land for his labour
    not by plough-land alone 180
But for keeping of silk worms
    Reforested the mulberry groves
    Set periodical markets
Exchange brought abundance, the prisons were empty.
"Yao and Chun have returned" 185
    sang the farmers
"Peace and abundance bring virtue."I am
      'pro-T cheou'said Confucius five centuries later.
With his mind on this age.
Summary 188-377
Summary 338-344
Then Kungfutseu was made minister and moved promptly
against T.C. Mao
      and had him beheaded (338-339)
that was false and crafty of heart 340
      a tough tongue that flowed with deceit
A man who remembered evil and was complacent in doing it.
LOU rose. Tsi sent girls to destroy it
      Kungfutseu retired
Summary 345-351
At Tching someone said: 345
      there is man with Yao's forehead
Cao's neck and the shoulers of Tse Tchin
A man tall as Yu, and he wanders about in front of the
East gate
      like a dog that has lost his owner. (346-349)
Wrong, said Confucius, in what he says of those Emperors 350
      but as to the lost dog, quite correct. (350-351)
Summary 352-362
He was seven days foodless in Tchin
      the rest sick and Kung making music
'sang even more than was usual' (353-354)
Honour to Yng P the bastard 355
Tchin and Tsai cut off Kung in the desert
      and Tcheou troops alone got him out
      Tsao fell after 25 generations
And Kung cut 3000 odes to 300
Comet from Yng star to Sin star that is two degrees long 360
in the 40th year of King Ouang
Died Kung aged 73 b.c. 479
Summary 363-380
Summary 384-390
Thus of Kung or Confucius, and of 'Hillock' his father
when he was attacking a city 385
his men had passed under the drop gate
And the warders then dropped it, so Hillock caught
the whole weight on his shoulder, and held till his
last man had got out.
Of such stock was Kungfutseu.

1 Yeou:有巢氏。taught men to beak branches:教民構木為巢,編槿而廬。break branches:折斷樹枝。[back]
2 Seu Gin:燧人氏。set up the stage:立傳教之臺(師道由此開始)。taught barter:與交易之道。[back]
3 taught the knotting of cords:作結繩之政;即教民結繩,大事則大結其繩,小事則小結其繩,以記之。[back]
4 Fou Hi:伏羲氏。taught men to grow barley:教民種植大麥。按:伏羲氏教民佃漁畜牧,養犧牲(指牛、羊、豕)以充庖廚,故又曰庖犧氏。教民耕稼者應係神農氏。[back]
5 2837 ante Christum:紀元前2837年。ante = before; Christum = Christ. 按係神農氏死於紀元前2837年,此處與史實有誤。[back]
7 cypress:柏樹,常植為墓樹。[back]
8 FIVE grains:五穀,即下一行的麥(wheat),稻 (rice)、(millet), 大麥 (gros ble)以及野豌豆 (chic peas). 其實五穀應指稻、麥、黍、稷、菽。[back]
10 Plough:犁。[back]
11 Moved his court:(神農氏)遷都。court:朝廷;王宮。Kio-feou-hien:曲阜縣。神農氏初都陳,後居曲阜。[back]
12 held market at mid-day:日中為市。[back]
13 'bring what we have not here':聚天下之貨。herbal:「方書」即藥書。神農嘗百草以療疾病/後世傳有神農本草。[back]
14 Souan Yen bagged fifteen tigers:此疑係指黃帝(軒轅)教態羆貔貅貙虎,以與炎帝戰於阪泉之野。但卻寫為軒轅捕獲十五隻虎。 bagged:捕獲。[back]
15 made signs out of bird tracks:辨識鳥跡;按傳說中係倉頡見鳥獸之跡,體類象形而造字。[back]
16 Hoang Ti:黃帝。Contrived the making of bricks:造磚(以廣宮室之制)。[back]
17 his wife:指黃帝元妃嫘祖。Started working the silk worms:始(教民,育蠶)治絲繭(以供衣服)。[back]
18 Money was in days of Hoang Ti:指黃帝作貨幣(立五幣,珠玉為上,黃金為中,刀布為下,以制國用)。[back]
19-20 He measured . . . song:指黃帝命令倫取(嶰谷之)竹造律呂。measured:量度;Syrinx是古代一種管樂器之名。Twenty-six (that was) eleven ante Christum:(黃帝死於)紀元前2611年。[back]
22 had . . . of his making(黃帝)子二十有五人。[back]
23 Kiao-Chan:橋山(在陝西延安府中部縣是黃帝陵寢所在)。[back]
24 Ti Ko:帝嚳。set . . . music:指帝嚳命咸黑典樂,為聲歌名曰六英。[back]
25 Tung Kieou:頓丘(在直隸大名府清豐縣)。[back]
26 a.c. = ante Christum.[back]
27 Yao:堯。like the sun and rain:指堯之德如耀日普照天下,時雨滋潤萬物。[back]
28 saw what star is at solstice:觀察至日時出現的星星,這就是尚書堯典所說的:「日中、星鳥,以殷仲春」。[back]
29 saw what star marks mid summer:觀察仲夏時出現的星星,這就是尚書堯典所說的:「日永、星火,以正仲夏」。[back]
30 YU:禹。[back]
31 black earth is fertile:「厥士黑墳」(禹貢)。fertile:肥沃的。wild silk:野蠶絲。Shantung:山東。[back]
32 Ammassi:(義大利文)堆積穀物或貨物。[back]
33 let his men pay tithes in kind:以各物的特產付什一之稅。[back]
34 Siu-tcheou province:徐州,是尚書禹貢載的九州之一,其域東至海,北至岱(即泰山),南至淮,就是現在的山東,南部和江蘇,安徽北部。[back]
34 to pay in earth of five colours:「厥貢惟土五色」(禹貢),即進獻五色土。[back]
35 Pheasant plumes from the Yu-chan of mountains:「羽畎夏翟」(禹貢)。Pheasant plumes:雉羽;Yu-chan嶧山(在今山東嶧縣)。[back]
36-37 Yu-chan . . .lutes made:「嶧陽孤桐」(禹項);嶧山進獻桐木,可做琴瑟。Sycamores:桐。[back]
38 Ringing stones from Se-choui river:「泗濱浮磬」(禹貢)。 Ringing stones指浮石可做磬者;Se-choui river泗水,源出今山東泗水縣,本由今江蘇清河縣入淮,後下流為運河所奪。[back]
39 Tsing-mo:菁茅,茅之有毛刺者;宗廟祭祀時用以瀘酒,是一種很貴重的草。按菁茅是荊州的貢物。μωλυ , (molu)一種藥草名,可用以辟邪。「奧德賽」The Odyssey第十章記述 Odysseus及其部屬船經Aeaea島。部屬上岸,被女巫Circe變成豬。而Odysseus則因Hermes贈他Molu這種藥草,故能辟邪,並迫使 Circe將其部屬收回人形。[back]
40 Chun:舜。to the spirit Chang Ti, of heaven:符合上帝(的意旨)。to: (do things) according to.[back]
41 moving the sun and stars:(指上帝能)移轉日、星。[back]
42 que vos vers expriment vos intentions = Let your verse express your intention. 詩言志。et que la musique conforme = and let your music conform to it, 聲依律。按:這兩行法文係直接引自Mailla's Histoire generale de la Chine on Anna les de cet empire.又:十八世紀的法國人從中國文化中尋得智慧,因而有所謂的啟蒙運動 (Enlightenment)。這兩行即表示中國文化對法國的衝擊與影響。[back]
(Summary 44-53) (略記夏后相為后羿所逐,後寒浞殺羿,澆殺帝相,后緡方娠,逃出自竇。又言伏羲以木德王,神農以火德王,黃帝以土德王,商以金德王等)。[back]
54-55 For years . . .Emperor Tching Tang:指湯在位時大旱數年之事。 Emperor Tching Tang:成湯。[back]
56 grain scarce, prices rising:穀少價揚。[back]
57 so that . . . (ante Christum) :指「戊戌,二十有一祀,大旱,發莊山之金」,亦即紀元前1766年成湯開採銅礦。[back]
58-60 made discs . . . buy grain:「鑄幣賬民」。discs:圓盤形銅幣(中有方形孔);wherewith = with which,discs按:此種銅幣係後世所鑄用者;目前發掘到的商朝錢幣,有刀形等種。[back]
62 silos [sailouz] 糧秣室。[back]
63 7 years of sterility:大旱七年。[back]
64 der im Baluba das Gewitter gemacht hat:(德文)即 (He) who made the tempest in Baluba, a place in Congo.[back]
65-68 Tching prayed . . . made it new:成(湯)禱于山,其盤銘曰:苟日新,日日新,又日新。此事指湯在位廿四年時大旱,乃禱於桑林,以六事自責,天雨。並作諸器用之銘,以為警戒。mountain指桑林 ;bath tub浴盤(「盤銘」即浴盤上的銘詞)。[back]
69-71 cut underbrush . . . growing:這三行是Pound給「新」字的解說。"Cut underbrush"(砍伐樹叢)即是「斤」(以斧砍伐);"pile the logs"(堆積木塊)即是「」。因「」,從「立」從「木」,亦即指將木塊堆立起來;"Keep it growing "(使之繼續成長)是給新全字的解說。[back]
75 Immoderate love of women:荒淫無度。Immoderate:過份的,過度的。[back]
77 parades:誇示;虛飾。huntin':佃獵(=hunting)。[back]
79 stinting:限制。[back]
80 the people's = the people's sweets.[back]
81 wd/ = would(/表示省略,是美國英語的用法)。[back]
168 Kang:康王,或Kang-wang,在位期間為1078-1002 B.C.[back]
169 White horses with sorrel manes:栗鬃白馬。[back]
170 I am pro-T cheou:吾從周。Confucius:孔子,551-479 B.C. 即周靈王廿一年至周敬王四十一年(或作Kunfutseu孔夫子,K'ung ch'iu孔丘,K'ung Fu Tzu孔夫子,Kung孔)。[back]
172 Wen-wang:文王。Wu-wang:武王,在位期間為1122-1119 B.C.[back]
176 Chao-Kong:召公,名奭。The surveyor:測量者。[back]
180 Plough-land:耕種之地。[back]
182 Reforested:重新植林。mulberry groves:桑樹叢。[back]
183 periodical:定期的。[back]
184 Exchange . . . empty:交易帶來了豐足,牢獄裡面無人。按:康王在位期間,囹圄空虛,刑錯不用。[back]
187 Peace and abundance bring virtue:安寧和豐饒足以養德,即衣食足然後知禮義。[back]
338-339 Then Kungfutseu . . . beheaded:「孔子為魯相,攝朝旨,而誅少正卯。beheaded:砍頭。[back]
340 that was . . . heart:「心逆而險」。crafty:狡猾的;詭詐的。[back]
341 a tough tongue . . . deceit:「言偽而辯」。deceit:欺騙。[back]
342 A man . . . doing it:心懷惡毒,安於為惡的人。complacent:滿足的;安心的。[back]
343 LOU:魯。魯在孔子的治理之下,逐漸強大。Tsi:齊。sent girls to destroy it:指「齊人歸女樂于魯」,欲敗覆魯國。it:指魯國。[back]
345 Tching:鄭國。[back]
346-349 there is a man . . . lost his owner:「東門有人,其顙似堯,其項類 陶,其肩類子產,然自要(腰)以下不及禹三寸,纍纍若喪家之狗」。forehead:前額;Cao:皋陶;Tse Tchin:子產。[back]
350-351 Wrong . . . correct:孔子(欣然而笑)曰:「形狀,未也。而謂似喪家之狗,然哉,然哉。」[back]
352 He was . . . Tchin:子在陳,絕糧七日。[back]
353-354 the rest . . . usual:從者病,子弦不輟。[back]
355 Yng P:子郢,衛靈公少子。靈公怨太子蒯隤出奔,欲立子郢為後。子郢謂已無德,不足以立,恐有辱社稷。the bastard:庶子,指子郢為衛靈公少子。[back]
356 Tchin and Tsai . . . in the desert:陳蔡「相與發徒圍之於野」。[back]
357 and Tcheou . . . out:「楚子興師迎孔子。」[back]
358 Tsao:曹。[back]
359 And Kung . . . 300:孔子「刪古詩三千餘篇,為三百五篇」。[back]
360 Comet:流星。from Yng star to Sin star:指熒惑守心。[back]
361 King Quang:周敬王(519-477 B.C)[back]
384 Hillock':小丘。孔子之父叔梁紇禱於尼丘得孔子,故名之孔丘。按:此處Pound顯係誤以 'Hillock'為叔梁紇之名。[back]